Heroes and Zeros

Illustration by H. C. Selous (1886) Thersites accosts Achilles from Troilus and Cressida (Cassell’s Illustrated Shakespeare). In the public domain.

This is AFAF’s assessment of who we think are academic freedom’s ‘heroes’ and ‘zeros’ each month.

September 2021

Our Hero is Ellie Lee, Professor of Family and Parenting Research at the University of Kent (UKC). Who was brave enough to make her concerns about her employer mandating a revised four hour online module for all students entitled Expect Respect that included a claim that wearing second hand clothes was an example of ‘white privilege’ (see below). Speaking to the Telegraph she said: “I’ve said I’m not going to do it (add trigger warnings or decolonise reading lists) and I’m not going to tell students to do this module either …and “quite a lot” of her colleagues had followed suit. She wrote an account of her week after going public in a blog on why she said “No!” on the Don’t Divide Us website.

Our Zero is the University of Kent for attempting to ‘mandate’ a four-hour long module Expect Respect for all students regardless of programme or level of study. Professor Lee says:

“I went into the module and was genuinely horrified at what students were asked to do and ‘learn’. The section titled, ‘(Anti-) Racism, Xenophobia and White Privilege’ begins:

Throughout, we review the meaning of racism and how to recognize it, microaggressions and structural racism, white privilege and white supremacy, and bias as well as offer some starting methods as combat these forms of oppression with antiracist action. There is also information provided on help and support available at Kent for anyone affected by racism.

The content is, simply and explicitly, a statement of support for Critical Race Theory, and students encouraged to ‘learn it’ and behave accordingly.”

AFAF believes that all controversial subjects should be approached through debate and discussion. Imposing contested views on students turns the university into a training institution.

August 2021

Our Hero is Father David Palmer who was nominated by his bishop as the Catholic chaplain to the University of Nottingham. The University rejected the nomination because, although they upheld his right to hold anti-abortion and other views, they did not like the ‘tone’ in which he expressed them. Palmer is our hero for going public on this issue when too many people suffer censorship in silence. (Update: In September 2021 the University accepted the nomination but stipulated a new probationary period)

Our Zero is Lisa Tilley – who claimed in a blog that she had ‘…resigned from [her] position in the Department of Politics at Birkbeck because of Eric Kaufmann’s public statements and activities, and because of the impact on Birkbeck staff and students of being in such close proximity to his far-right followers.’ It’s a statement that undermines the very basis of a university. If only views acceptable to her and others were allowed, then a university would be reduced to an indoctrination institution.  

July 2021

Our Heroes are the Academy of Ideas, The University of Buckingham and the Free Speech Champions who organised a panel debate on ‘Free speech: how can we combat campus cancel culture?’ as part of the Battle of Ideas Open For Debate event. While risk-adverse UK universities fear to hold large lectures, the Academy of Ideas showed the way forward by organising a face-to-face event with over four hundred attendees.

Our Zero is Nottingham Trent University for withdrawing the offer of a place to a student because of the racist views that he voiced on Snapchat. Others on Snapchat had already denounced his views and argued with him. It should have ended there.

June 2021

Our Hero for this month is Lisa Keogh, a final year student at Abertay University, Dundee. Keogh was brave enough to go public about being subject to a disciplinary procedure after fellow students complained about her saying, in a discussion, that women have vaginas and are not as strong as men.  A disciplinary board dismissed all the complaints. We need more students (and academics) to speak up when subject to these secretive attacks on free speech inside our universities.

Our Zero is the Oxford University Student Union that hopes to have sensitivity readers sanitise the content of the 100-year-old student magazine Cherwell. The SU argues that the paper needs better editing because too many articles express ‘generally inaccurate and insensitive” opinions. That patronising and censorious approach to your fellow students is all bluff and bluster. Cherwell is an independent publication.

May 2021

Our Heroes for May are two university leaders.

Our first Hero is Professor Anthony Foster, the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Essex, who unequivocally apologised for no platforming at the University in response to an investigative report. He said:

“The report makes clear that we have made serious mistakes and we need to do our very best to learn from these and to ensure they are not repeated. The review notes the particular responsibility placed on universities to protect freedom of speech within the law, and to ensure that a diversity of voices and views can be heard on our campuses. On behalf of the University, I have issued an open apology to each of Professor Phoenix and Professor Freedman. [See The ‘Banned’ List December 2019 and January 2020]

I was deeply concerned to read the input into the review from some staff and students who said that they felt constrained to self-censor their speech and activity because of concerns about how we manage the balance between freedom of speech and our commitment to diversity, equality and inclusion. We must re-commit to providing a supportive and inclusive environment within which people can expect to learn, grow and develop through challenge. As a community this means that we may encounter ideas or arguments which may be experienced as objectionable or offensive; with a line drawn at conduct which is unlawful or contrary to the University’s policies. On behalf of the University, I am offering an open apology to staff and students regarding the procedural and other failings that have occurred in relation to the two events covered in the Reindorf Report, and for any distress caused.”

Our second Hero is Dr Michael Spence, the Provost of University College London (UCL). Spence responded to demands that the University make a statement on the conflict between Israel with a defence of university neutrality and academic freedom:

“…the university…is not a participant in public debate, but a forum in which that debate takes place. While our staff and students should loudly argue for their conceptions of truth and value, the university, as an institution, should refrain from doing so lest it chill the exercise of the ethical individualism of its staff and students.”

Our Zero is the University of Cambridge for putting the Report * Support tool on its website so that so that students could file anonymous reports ‘on ‘micro-aggressions’ – that included apparent offences such as raising an eyebrow, turning your back, giving backhanded compliments or referring to a woman as a girl’ Daily Mail 26 May. The aim was said to be to provide a safe and welcoming environment. The site was removed from the University site after complaints from academics. The tool is apparently available at 60% of universities – giving the lie to their rhetorical support for free speech.

April 2021

Our Hero for April is the Russell Group of top universities. Wary of disproportionate government intervention, they published a Russell Group Free Speech Statement on 22 April. The motivation for its publication may be suspect but the statement is welcome.

Our Zero of the month is Middlesex University for further abandoning institutional neutrality by formally rejecting the report of the Commission on Race and Ethnic Disparities (Sewell Report). They said: ‘Middlesex University rejects the [Sewell Report] and its conclusions’, the University, ‘acknowledges the existence of systemic and institutional racism, particularly in higher education’. This is now a dogma. Free speech on this issue no longer exists at Middlesex.

March 2021

Our Hero is Keenan Clough – a student at the University of Liverpool who wrote and  presented an ‘Academic Freedom Charter’ to the Guild of Students. A referendum on the charter was planned between 8 March and 12 March but did not take place because it was held that the content of the Charter was covered by University and Guild policies and overlapped with existing policies and Bye-Laws

Our Zero is the University of Manchester. In the week preceding Mother’s Day, the BBC reported that the University had advised staff against using the terms ‘mother’ and ‘father’ to avoid bias and assumption and encouraged the use of ‘gender-neutral terms such as ‘partner’ or ‘guardian’. There was a backlash on social media with many declaring this as part of a #WaronWomen and an insult to all mothers.

February 2021

Our Hero for February is Inaya Folarin Iman, who initiated the Free Speech Champions network that was then developed in collaboration with the Free Speech Union and the Battle of Ideas charity. “Inaya quickly formed a network of young people who share her passion for freedom and after long discussions and lots of late nights, the Free Speech Champions project was born”.

Our Zero is the Oriel College, University of Oxford, commission that is soon to set out how the statue of Cecil Rhodes, built into the wall of Oriel College, can be moved. This is opposed by Dons. One of whom, Professor Nigel Biggar, told The Times “The Rhodes statue in terms of the culture wars is iconic. If that goes, all manner of things will go”.

January 2021

Our first Heroes for January 2021 are Helen Pluckrose and colleagues who set up Counterweight – a citizen rights organisation to give ‘practical information and expert guidance to resist the imposition of the ideology that calls itself “Critical Social Justice” on your day-to-day life’.

Our second set of Heroes are the 2858 academics who signed an open letter to Vice-Chancellor Canagarajah of the University of Leicester to defend the teaching of Chaucer. they said: “We are dismayed to hear of the decision to make colleagues in the Department of English at the University of Leicester redundant, and to effectively dispense with research and teaching in Medieval and most Early Modern Literatures”. According to the Daily Mail, in place of Chaucer will be a new ‘ a selection of modules on race, ethnicity, sexuality and diversity, a decolonised curriculum, and new employability module’.

Our third set of Heroes are Daniel Jacobson, Peter Singer, Russell Blackford and the 422 other philosophers and academics who signed an open letter that rebutted the arguments that Professor Kathleen Stock’s views had caused any harm to trans people. The letter robustly defended academic inquiry:

Much academic research, including philosophy, engages with difficult and controversial subjects, and it is critical that this work be brought to bear on matters of real, imminent public concern. Sex-specific intimate spaces, athletics, medical services, and prisons have long been the norm in our societies and are represented in the very infrastructure in which we conduct our daily lives. Significant changes to these practices and norms are the kinds of things that our professional scholars must be able to discuss, without constant threat of public vilification.

Our first Zeros for January 2021 are the 600 philosophers who signed an open letter condemning the award of an OBE to Professor Kathleen Stock for her academic work and defence of free speech. The letter claimed she was ‘transphobic’ and her views ‘harmful’ to trans people. They were ‘…dismayed that the British government has chosen to honour her for this harmful rhetoric’.

Our second Zeros are the hypersensitive, ‘woke’ academics at the University of York, who removed the traditional image of the three wise monkeys from a website incase it was deemed to be racist. The Sun said: ‘The image of the monkeys – known worldwide for centuries to mean seeing, hearing and speaking no evil – was pulled ahead of an art history conference’.

December 2020

Our Hero for the last month of 2020 is Professor Kathleen Stock OBE who Tweeted at 06.05 on 31 December:

“Honoured to have been given OBE for services to higher education. I want to use this opportunity to draw further attention to suppression of critical thought about gender identity ideology and trans activism in UK Universities”.

An OBE for free speech and intellectual integrity. Well done from the AFAF team!

Our Zeroes of the last month of 2020 are the academics, Priyamvada Gopal and Gavan Titley, who opined in the Guardian that the recent defence of free speech at Cambridge (see below) removes ‘the right of university members to justifiably remove platforms from speakers whose work is found to have been fraudulent, plagiarised, defamatory, or indeed, incompatible with an institution committed to an equal and inclusive environment’. In other words, any views the ‘woke’ find to be ‘discredited’ are to be ‘no platformed’.  Fortunately, there are signs that in 2021 academics and students will not be easily told which views they must conform to because they are said to be ‘credible’.

November 2020

Our Heroes of the month are Ross Anderson and Arif Ahmed, the fellows, and present and past students of the University of Cambridge who have opposed three clauses in the University’s new ‘free speech’ policy. One clause requires that all views must be treated with ‘respect’ rather than tolerance. The fellows and students demand the right to satirise and mock views they disagree with. (A ballot was held and the amendments defending free speech were carried.)

Our Zeros of the month are the woke, historically and linguistically illiterate students at the University of Manchester who want any negative use of the term ‘black’ removed from textbooks and lectures. This includes terms like ‘blackmail’, ‘blacklist’ and ‘black sheep’ claiming they were colonial terms. Lexicographer Jonathan Green told the Telegraph that these phrases were not borne from conscious racism, he said: “An aspect of current identity politics has indeed claimed an etymology that simply wasn’t there at the moment of coinage”.

October 2020

Our Hero of the month is Professor Louise Richardson, Vice Chancellor of the University of Oxford. In her Annual Oration to the University she stressed her commitment to free speech:

I am strongly committed to maintaining Oxford’s proud tradition of free speech and academic freedom of expression, modelling a society that is tolerant, open-minded, willing to listen even where it doubts or disapproves. There is no doubt that, where public discourse supports free speech within universities, we also uphold its value beyond the University: this is another crucial way in which Oxford contributes to the wider world”.

Our Zeros of the month are the education unions, the University and College Union (UCU), the National Association of Schoolmasters/Union of Women Teachers (NASUWT), the Educational Institute of Scotland (EIS) and the Association of School and College Leaders (ASCL) who ignored the beheading of the French school teacher, Samuel Paty, by an Islamist terrorist for teaching a lesson on the value of free speech during which he showed his pupils Charlie Hebdo cartoons of Muhammed.  Only the National Education Union (NEU) mentioned the murder of Paty but did not say that he was teaching about the value of free speech only that he was teaching about ‘human values’. This silence says how much UK’s education unions value free speech – not at all.

September 2020

Our Hero is law student Simeon Burke who overturned NUI Galway’s imposition of the ‘Community Promise’ asking students to ‘behave responsibly’. Simeon told the Irish Times: “I felt it undermined my rights as an NUI Galway student and threatened my freedom to think for myself”.

Our Zero is Sunny Singh, newly appointed Professor of Creative Writing and Inclusion in the Arts at London Metropolitan University. She Tweeted on 24 September: “I get regular invites to debate on various platforms. I always say no. Because debate is an imperialist capitalist white supremacist cis heteropatriarchal technique that transforms a potential exchange of knowledge into a tool of exclusion & oppression”.  ‘Only oppressors like a good debate’ is how Rod Liddle headed a section on Singh in his column in the Sunday Times. Singh’s Tweet exposed how the woke in the academy believe it is better if they gently tell you what to think.  PS She is not one of Titania McGrath’s creations.

August 2020

Our Heroes of the month are Philip Cunliffe and Lee Jones, the authors of a controversial report for the think tank CIEO on Saving Britain’s Universities. Their report includes a proposal to Enshrine Academic Freedom as the Foundational Principle of HE: ‘It is clear that academic freedom and freedom of speech on campus needs to be bolstered. Academic freedom is best defined as the ability of academics and students to teach, study, debate, pursue knowledge and conduct research free from political interference, public pressure, or institutional constraint, including the threat of disciplinary action or dismissal. This principle, which safeguards freedom of thought and speech on university campuses, is essential for the pursuit of knowledge and truth, and foundational to a free society. It should therefore be enshrined as the foundational principle of the new British university system.’  AFAF would welcome more discussion of this aspect of their report.

Our first Zero this month is NUI Galway for requiring all students and staff to sign a pledge to behave responsibly because of covid-19 concerns. If an individual is challenged they must ‘respond in an open, positive, and respectful manner – listening carefully to understand the concern, and changing my behaviour to remove it’. This is an authoritarian and infantilising demand that shows no respect for the intelligence or common sense of students or faculty.

Our second Zero is Jo Grady, general secretary of the University and College Union (UCU), who dismissed the findings of a  Policy Exchange report on Academic Freedom in the UK saying: ‘The idea that academic freedom is under threat is a myth.’ Grady is one of the many who are in denial about the attacks on academic freedom because they are committed to promoting social justice groupthink in universities rather than the pursuit of knowledge.

July 2020

Our Heroes of the month are Robert Halfon, chair of the Parliamentary Education Select Committee, who said that the cancellation of events by universities for security reasons was ‘disgraceful’ and the universities minister, Michelle Donelan, for stating that universities could be legally obliged to fund security for controversial speakers on campus in order to protect freedom of speech on campus. If followed through this would remove one excuse to ban speakers.

Our Zero of the month is Solent University for its treatment of Stephen Lamonby. Lamonby appeared on The Banned List because he was sacked for saying in a private conversation that Jewish people were among the cleverest in the world. His former University appears here for its appalling treatment of him in the sacking process. He told The Jewish Chronicle that he was “marched out in front of my students like a thief” by three women from the university’s HR department… [he] also revealed that his accuser, Dr Janet Bonar, another Solent lecturer, was not present at any of the disciplinary proceedings that took place before he was fired for “gross misconduct”.

June 2020

This Month’s Hero is Mike McCulloch (University of Plymouth) who went public, in the online magazine Unherd, about his pending disciplinary hearing because of two complaints that he had “liked posts saying ‘All lives matter’, ‘Gender has a scientific basis’ and ones opposed to mass immigration”. With help from the Free Speech Union the charges were dropped. There are many such cases in the ‘shadow university’ that we never hear about. AFAF will be reporting on many of these in the autumn.

This month’s Zero is Nottingham Trent University. ‘Professor Edward Peck, the Vice Chancellor of Nottingham Trent University, recently stated that his institution is “considering” introducing compulsory modules in “unconscious bias and white privilege” for all students and staff’. AFAF is opposed to all mandatory training on controversial topics. Brainwashing is not the job of a university.

May 2020

Our Hero of the month is the University of Oxford. The University rejected a Student Union demand to ban what they labelled ‘academic hate speech’ (see below). The university gave this statement to The Oxford Blue: ‘Free speech is the lifeblood of a university. It enables the pursuit of knowledge. It helps us approach truth…  [a university] should never prevent speech that is lawful … Inevitably, this will mean that members of the University are confronted with views that some find unsettling, extreme or offensive … The University must therefore foster freedom of expression within a framework of robust civility. Not all theories deserve equal respect … Wherever possible, they should also be exposed to evidence, questioning and argument … neither speakers nor listeners should have any reasonable grounds to feel intimidated or censored.’

Our Zero of the month is the University of Oxford Student Union for passing an ‘Academic Hate Speech Motion’ intended to establish a new policy prohibiting what they saw as ‘hate speech’ within the University. This would include anything they believed constituted ‘incitement of hatred on the grounds of gender identity, disability, and socio economic status, including to trans, non-binary, disabled, working-class, and women’. The Oxford Student reported that the motion also mandated the SU ‘to lobby for trigger warnings on readings lists and for lectures, tutorials, and examinations with content deemed prejudicial against the aforementioned groups to be non-compulsory for students. It asserts that arguments based on “free speech policy are inapplicable” when students are “required by the University to listen to the speech in question”.’

April 2020 (The Coronavirus Month when all universities were closed)

Our Heroes of the Month are the academics who write for The Full Brexit. They have maintained a much-needed critical voice about the politics that drive the response to the coronavirus.  

Our Zeros of the month are the University Hospitals, and other NHS trusts, that are forbidding staff to speak out about coronavirus issues.

March 2020

Our half Hero of the month is Toby Young of the Free Speech Union who wrote to the Proctors of the University of Oxford to protest against the de-platforming of Amber Rudd. This was a welcome move but the Proctors then de-registered (no platformed) the UNWomen Oxford UK Society. Young was wrong to celebrate this. A lesson for all defenders of free speech is not to call for, or condone, bans and proscriptions.

Our Zero of the month is the University of Sheffield Students’ Union that is attempting to gag the newly-formed free speech society by demanding that it seeks prior approval for all its events.

February 2020

Our first Hero of the month is Professor Karen Cox, the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Kent, who has stood firm against demands to cancel a lecture on Class to be given in March by Professor Selina Todd. Todd is accused of being a transphobe by eighty UKC Academics and dozens from other universities.

Our second Hero of the month is UCU for Academic Freedom (UCU4AF), a group of academics asking candidates in the UCU National Executive Elections to support academic freedom.

Our Zero of the month is what will be the new executive of the University and College Union (UCU). Many candidates for national office in the current round of elections stated in an open letter that trans issues should not be discussed in universities. They claimed that ‘free speech’ on these and other matters was a ‘transphobic’ and ‘neo-fascist’ conspiracy.

January 2020

The first Hero of the month is Julia Rynkiewicz, a midwifery student at the University of Nottingham, who fought against her suspension from her hospital placement because of complaints from academics about her pro-life views. She also faced a fitness to practice investigation.  Her suspension was overturned but she will now graduate a year behind her peers.  Laurence Wilkinson, legal counsel at Alliance Defending Freedom International, said that her experience “represents a very chilling prospect for freedom of speech on campus”.

The second Hero of the month is the Wilberforce Society, the UK’s oldest student society, based in Cambridge. The society sent its speaker, the comedian Konstantin Kisin, a free speech ‘Behavioural Agreement’ which could be a model for many student societies. As Kisin said on Facebook, “SOAS take note!” as he had refused to speak there a year earlier because of their censorious ‘agreement’. Here is an extract from the agreement:

This contract has been written to ensure an environment where all ideas can be put forward and fully criticised. By signing this contract, you are agreeing to our no tolerance policy with regards to lying to protect yourself or the audience, or hiding the truth for fear of being smeared.

All topics must be presented in a way that is honest and in good faith. No topics cannot be discussed. It must be done in a civil but completely honest way.

The First (absolute) Zero of the month is the University of Sheffield for employing 20 students at £9.34 an hour to police ‘microaggressions’. A ‘microaggression’ is speech that is so subtly offensive most people would think it is innocent or, at worst, just crass. One of the examples the University gives of this appalling speech is ‘Why are you searching for things to be offended about?’ The Vice-Chancellor, Koen Lamberts, claimed the plan was to start ‘conversations’ about race. Perhaps students and staff at the University should ask him and the language police just that: “Why are you searching for things to be offended about?”

The second Zero of the month is Merton College, University of Oxford, for requiring attendees at a forthcoming ‘Equality Conversation’ event to: “refrain from using language or putting forward views intended to undermine the validity of trans and gender diverse identities”. After academics expressed concerns about academic freedom the College replaced the censorious statement with a declaration about free speech.

December 2019

The Hero for December is Kathleen Stock, a professor of philosophy at the University of Sussex. Stock responded to an Employment Tribunal ruling that upheld Maya Forstater’s dismissal, from the Centre for Global Development, for repeatedly expressing the view that people can’t change sex.  Writing in Medium on 18 December she attacked the decision as a threat to free thought and to philosophical thinking in particular.  She said:

I therefore call upon the British Philosophical Association, all learned Philosophical societies in the UK, and all British academic philosophers working in UK departments, to stand up and say out loud — or better, write it down where members of the public can read it: people should be legally permitted to believe that biological sex is immutable and cannot be changed, without fear of losing their jobs. You are philosophers. This is your moment. If not now, then when?

The Zero is the University of York after the head of the English department apologised to students who were offended when they came across the word ‘negro’ in lectures about the work of the African- American sociologist W. E. B. Dubois and the Martiniquian anti-colonialist writer Frantz Fanon.  She suggested a trigger warning be given to disassociate lecturers from the views they were discussing. Sociologist Professor Frank Furedi commented: “The obsession with the policing of language has become a caricature of itself. The word negro, which was used by pan-Africanists to refer to themselves, is now rebranded as a source of distress by students who do not have a clue about what racism means”.

November 2019

The Hero of the month has to be Maya Nerissa Thomas, an undergraduate student reading history at the University of Oxford, who set up the Oxford Society for Free Discourse. She was interviewed about her views in The Oxford Student. Maya joins a growing list of students such as Peter Anson, the founder of Liberate the Debate, who are setting up free speech societies to counter the chilling of free speech on campus.

The Zero of the Month is Oxford Brookes University which cancelled a talk by feminist artist Rachel Ara after a complaint by students denouncing her as a Trans Exclusionary Radical Feminist (TERF). Ara appears on The Banned List but Brookes gets a special mention here for the bureaucratic way it avoided the charge of censorship according to the Oxford Mail: “The university has taken the decision to postpone a lecture as it had not been booked through the usual process for confirming external speakers. Postponement will allow appropriate time to ensure this process takes place”. Such manoeuvres exemplify how universities engage in institutional denial of the climate of censorship on campus.

October 2019

Hero number one is Professor Elizabeth Kiss, an American philosopher and former Rhodes scholar, who became warden of Rhodes House, Oxford in August 2019. She is responsible for Rhodes scholarships but, according to The Times, Professor Kiss refused to change the scheme name in response to student demands. She said: “If we change the name what do we gain? The legacy is still there. You are just running away from it. All of us, not just Rhodes scholars, are products and beneficiaries of very morally complex legacies. In bearing the name Rhodes scholars are challenged continually to confront that and engage with it”.

The second Hero is sociologist Dr Stuart Waiton, a senior lecturer in sociology and criminology at Abertay University, Dundee. Dr Waiton argued on Sky News, that the revulsion about Nazi salutes at a football match had turned into a moral panic. His university ‘distanced’ itself from his comments and he was vilified on social media as a racist, a fascist and a white supremacist. Dr Waiton did not capitulate to threats and abuse but continued to explain his position in the press.  

Zero number one is the Oxford University Student Union which voted to ‘mandate the encouragement of silent clapping’ of ‘jazz hands’ at union events to avoid ‘triggering’ vulnerable students.  Writing in the Daily Mail, Emeritus Professor Frank Furedi, a distinguished sociologist, warned: ‘Some might dismiss ‘jazz hands’ as nothing more than the kind of frivolous, attention-seeking behaviour to which student unions have always resorted. But the situation is far worse. The Oxford policy is important because it symbolises our culture’s slide into infantalised decadence, where enfeeblement is celebrated and learned helplessness indulged’. Furedi argued that academic freedom will be undermined if people continue to see students as potential victims in need of safeguarding rather than as resilient adults.

The second Zero is Sheffield Students’ Union which banned white students from attending focus groups on ‘How we can create an anti-racist Students’ Union’. This act of censorship was said to be a move from being ‘non-racist to actively anti-racist’ but was widely condemned as being itself an example of racism and an attack on the academic freedom of undergraduates.  

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